Poultry Farming: How to Prevent Vaccine Failure

Vaccines help to prevent or minimize the impact of viral diseases. They are important because viral diseases cannot be treated with drugs. They can only be prevented with vaccines. If a poultry farmer is not careful to follow certain rules, the vaccine he administer will fail to protect his birds from viral diseases. And when this happens, many farmers end up blaming the vaccine manufacturers.

Vaccines can be given to birds through drinking water, by injection, eye drop, spray etc. The most common route for broiler is via drinking water and wing web puncture (for fowlpox vaccine). For egg layers it is via drinking water, wing web puncture (for fowlpox vaccine) and injections. You can get sample vaccination/medication plans for layers and broiler below:

Vaccination/Medication Plan for Layers Vaccination/Medication Plan for Broilers

Below are rules that will help you prevent vaccine failure:

1. Vaccinate healthy birds
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

Broiler Medication and Vaccination Chart

Below is broiler medication and vaccination chart you can follow. Vaccinating your birds against viral diseases is very important because viral diseases are incurable. Vaccination will help to prevent or reduce the severity of viral diseases.

Medication on the other hand, is used to treat or prevent diseases caused by bacteria, fungi or protozoa. But if you follow good biosecurity measures, you can reduce the amount of medication you give.

Here goes the chart:

Day 1: Marek vaccine: This is usually given to the chicks at the hatchery.

On getting to your brooding pen, give them multivitamins and minerals in water. Provide broiler starter feed in enough feeder such that all of them can feed at the same time without struggle.

Day 2-4: Multivitamins and antibiotics. Recommended antibiotics include …..

Day 5: Gumboro vaccine via drinking water.

Day 7: Lasota for Newcastle disease

Day 10-12: Anti-coccidiosis drugs and
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

Poultry Litter Beetle: Silent Killers

Litter beetles are those dark beetles you find in poultry houses, most especially in deep litter houses. They normally hide under everything – drinkers, feeders, stones, laying boxes that are on the floor, along the walls etc. In my early days of raising chickens, I totally ignore these beetles because I thought they were harmless. But are they harmless? They are VERY harmful!

Litter beetles

 

Litter beetles eat chicken feed, their larvae bore into insulations, woods etc, they climb into poultry feathers and bite them, sometimes killing weakened chickens and worst of all, they can carry a lot of poultry diseases!

 

The scientific name for these little destroyers is Alphitobius diaperinus. Locally, they can also be called darkling beetles, lesser mealworm, black beetles etc. They cause more problems in houses where the litter is allowed to build up without any effective control program in place.


>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

Burgundy mixture: Make Your Own Fungicide

Burgundy mixture is a simple diy copper fungicide that is effective against many fungi diseases in crops. It is a mixture of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium carbonate (sodium bicarbonate, Na2CO3). It is also known as “sal soda Bordeaux”, not to be confused with Bordeaux mixture, which is a mixture of copper sulphate and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2).

The chemicals listed here can be bought in places where Industrial or Chemistry lab chemicals are sold. But it is cheaper to buy from Industrial chemical sellers. In Anambra State, Nigeria, you can get them from Uga market, close to River Niger Bridge Head.

How to Make Burgundy Mixture

The amount of ingredients to use depends on the percentage of copper sulphate in the mixture. A 1% Burgundy mixture will contain 1% copper sulphate (that is, 1kg copper sulphate in 100 liters of water). Sodium bicarbonate is usually added at a higher
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

How to Grow Plantain and Make Money: Part 3 of 3

This is part 3. If you haven’t read part 1 and 2, read them here: Part 1 and part 2.

Fertilizer and Manure Application:

After planting the suckers, I applied 20:10:10 fertilizer 1 month after planting. Dosage is 30ml per plant. By this time, new, white roots have started growing. I buried the fertilizer in a shallow hole 10-20cm away from the plants, making sure I don’t damage too much roots. Note: I applied Carbofuran (for nematode control) into the same hole with the NPK. More on Carbofuran later under “pesticide application” below.

Second NPK application can be made 2 months after planting, 50cm away from the plant. I used 30ml 20:10:10 per plant but those that were growing fast got 60ml.

About 1 month or so after the second NPK application, I planned applying organic manure at 11L pig manure per plant but I couldn’t get
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

How to Grow Plantain and Make Money: Part 2

Readers note: This is a continuation of the part 1 series. It is important that you read part 1 before this. Thanks.

Peeled, chemically treated plantain corm. You can see the tunnel I made to reach the weevil inside.

Transporting Suckers:

Suckers are very bulky and transporting them over long distances can be a nightmare. You can reduce transportation cost by cutting the pseudostems in half. The larger the corm sizes, the greater the survival rate. Even if the pseudostem eventually dies, new suckers will emerge from the corm if you leave it for some weeks. Suckers with large corms can be cut off a few centimeters above the corm.

Chemical Treatment of Suckers: After peeling the corms, I wash them and using a knapsack sprayer, I spray a mixture of insecticides, fungicides and foliar fertilizer on the corm. But note, peel the corms outside your
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

How to Grow Plantain and Make Money Part 1 of 3

Spray tube irrigation in my plantain farm

I have grown crops like cucumber, pepper and okra and I know how much pesticides they can consume. Growing them large scale can be very expensive. While thinking of a low cost alternative, plantains or banana comes to mind (cassava and cocoyam are also cheaper to grow). I have 10 plots of land (rented) but since the past 3 years, half of it remained empty because I could not afford using it for expensive crops. So I decided to fill the empty plots with plantain and pawpaw. I will be writing about the pawpaw farm in another post.

Spray tube irrigation in my plantain farm Soil Requirements:

Plantain require a deep, well-drained soils that are rich in organic matter. The plants will grow optimally in soil with a pH between 5.5 and 7.0. They need water to yield well. So plant them during the rainy season. If rainy
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

How to Grow Lemon Basil (Curry) and Make money

Lemon basil, popularly called “curry plant” is a herb with a sweet citrus fragrance. In Nigeria, it is popularly used in cooking stew. It has a lot of health benefits because of the minerals (magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, calcium,) and vitamins (rich in vit A and K) it contains. It also contains the compounds limonene and citral, which have some anti-inflammatory properties (i.e. ability to reduce redness, swelling, and pain in the body). Below is a guide, based on my experience, on how you can grow and make money with lemon basil. You can make lots of money from this during the dry season when tomatoes are cheap. But once tomatoes get scarce, demand falls because it is mainly used in stew. Because of this, it is not good to grow one type of vegetable. I grow green amaranth, scent leaf, fluted pumpkin (ugu) leaves in addition to curry.


>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

Growing Grass for Livestock: The Future of Livestock Farming in Africa

When it comes to ruminant farming, Nigeria still practice the archaic system of nomadic grazing and cut-and-carry system from bushes. In countries like Kenya, livestock farmers grow grass to feed their animals. Many Nigerians may find this laughable but it is far better than what we’re used to.

Growing your own grass means that you are sure that feed supply will be enough to meet your animals’ need. It is also hygienic. When I was young, we had some goats and I was the one that feed them. I normally went to bushes to cut grass. One thing that worried me so much is the eye-sores I normally encounter. I would always have to cope with the sight of human feces here and there. In fact, that was the main thing that discouraged me from goat farming.

Cattle grazing close to farmlands

Now that I have discovered
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<

How to Convert Food Waste to Nutritious Feed Via Lactic Acid Fermentation

Pay a visit to fresh fruit and vegetable markets and slaughter houses and you’ll see how much food get wasted daily. Unknown to many, these wastes can easily be converted to nutritious meal for pigs, poultry, goats, sheep, cows, rabbits, and fish by a process called lactic acid fermentation. All you need is a lactic acid bacteria, a source of fermentable carbohydrate and time. Don’t mind the complex names, you can easily get all of them.

Fruits, vegetables, fish and slaughter house wastes has very high water content and that makes them highly perishable. They can be treated in various ways but those ways can hardly compete with fermentation – they may be composted (time consuming), used in vermiculture (growing of earthworm) or biogas digesters (why use a valuable waste when you can use manure instead?) or fed directly to animals (they may contain pathogens and pesticides. There is
>>>>>> [Read more…] <<<<<<