Make your own Urea Molasses Block

Urea molasses mineral block is a cheap supplemental block that is used to increase the nutritional qualities of low-quality feeds for ruminants (goats, sheep and cattle). It is a good source of protein, energy and minerals. Low quality feeds are cheap and abundant. Few examples include crop residues like wheat and rice straw, maize and sorghum stovers, beans plant and dry grasses. They are low in protein, vitamins, minerals and are hard to digest. Feeding these to ruminants result in sluggish growth, delayed maturation, longer pregnancy interval, poor milk yield etc.

But when you combine low quality feeds and UMMB, there will be increase in feed digestibility by up to 20 percent, increase in growth rate and increased feed intake by 25 to 30 percent. With UMMB, poor farmers don’t have to spend money on costly feeds like maize, soybeans meal, groundnut cake etc.

How to Make Urea Molasses Mineral Block

You’ll need the following ingredients:
1. 50% Molasses
2. 10% Urea (fertilizer)
3. 5% Salt and minerals
4. 10% Cement and
5. 25% Rice Bran.

Note: You can replace rice bran with that chaff that is left after making pap from corn or millet. You can also replace it with wheat offal, finely ground groundnut hull or sugar cane bagasse.

Molasses can be replaced with sugar. Molasses contains 60-65% sugar by weight. Therefore you can use 30-33% sugar instead of 50% molasses. But the block will be lacking calcium, sulphur and B complex vitamins.

Rice bran is a nutrient-rich by-product of the rice milling process. It is obtained when dehusked rice is polished to make it white. Rice bran is different from rice hull which is the outermost part of raw rice.

There are many ways to make UMMB. Here is another formulae:

45% molasses
10% urea
5% trace minerals
2.5% NaCl
22.5% wheat bran and
15% cement.



This is urea fertilizer (


This is molasses (

Urea molasses block and a wooden mold

Urea molasses block and a wooden mold (

Cow lick urea block

Cow lick urea block (


Please follow the exact steps below to make your own UMMB because improper mixing of urea can lead to urea poisoning.

1. Gather all Ingredients and Equipment: You will need molasses, urea, salt and minerals, cement, rice bran, water, a mixing container, a weighing scale, mixing utensils, and molds for shaping the blocks.

2. Measure and Weigh the Ingredients: Measure and weigh out each ingredient using the percentage given above. For example, you can measure 5 kilograms of molasses, 1 kg of urea, 0.5 kg of salt and minerals, 1 kg of cement, and 2.5 kg of rice bran. Adjust the quantities accordingly based on the quantity you need.

3. Mix the Ingredients: This step is very important. We have to make sure that the urea is mixed uniformly to avoid it being concentrated in some areas of the block. To ensure this do the following exactly.

In a mixing container, add the measured amounts of urea and salt. Add a little bit of water and mix. Keep adding a little bit of water until they dissolve completely.

Gradually add the molasses to the mixture while mixing thoroughly. Then add the cement or limestone a little at a time while mixing. Finally, add the rice bran to the mixture and mix everything well.

4. Shaping, Curing and Drying: The mold can be either rectangular or cylindrical. Transfer the mixture into molds and press firmly. Place them in an airy area away from direct sunlight and allow them to cure and dry.

Storage and Usage: Once the UMMB blocks are fully cured and dried (in about 1 week), store in a cool, dry place to prevent spoilage. Protect from moisture.

My goat.

This is my goat. I’m just starting. More to come

Warnings and Precautions

1. Do not give UMMB to animals younger than six months of age because their rumen is not yet well developed.

2. Do not give to pregnant animals in their last trimester of pregnancy.

3. Don’t give to hungry or thirsty animals. Feed them well and provide water before giving UMMB because overconsumption can lead to urea poisoning.

4. Beware of urea poisoning. Symptoms may include excessive salivation, difficulty in breathing, bloating, or other abnormal behavior. If these symptoms occur, contact a veterinarian or read on for more information.

5. Don’t feed UMMB to non-ruminants like pigs, poultry, rabbits, donkeys, horse etc because of their simple stomach. Doing so will be deadly.

6. Protect the block from rain. Wet block can lead to overconsumption and hence urea poisoning.

7. Provide 1 block for every 8-10 cattle or 20-25 sheep and goats to avoid competition and overeating.

8. The quantity of blocks fed to sheep and goats should be limited to 100 grams/day while for cattle it should be limited to 500-700 grams/day.

9. Animal performance can be further increased by feeding a little source of bypass protein like soybeans meal or groundnut cake. In this case, make sure to add a source of phosphorus like bonemeal.

10. Introduce UMMB to ruminants slowly over a period of 2 weeks. This means that you should allow them access to the block for few hours per day for 2 weeks. After that allow them free access and they will lick it according to their requirement.

Some Theories
When ruminants eat urea, the microbes in their rumen will convert it to ammonia. They will then combine this ammonia with carbohydrate in molasses to produce amino acids.

Lastly, be vigilant for symptoms of urea poisoning and take appropriate action. Symptoms may include excessive salivation, difficulty in breathing, bloating (swollen stomach), froth from the nostrils and evidence of struggle prior to death, muscle and skin tremors, unsteadiness on legs, and convulsions, hypersensitivity to sound, frequent urination and defecation, dyspnoea and tachypnoea, stiffening of the forelimbs, incoordination, convulsions, rumen atony, and regurgitation. Symptoms can appear 10-90 minutes after poisoning and death within 4 hours (2 hours in cattle).

If these symptoms occur, treat by giving 5% acetic acid (vinegar) to lower the pH in the rumen. Use 0.5–2 L vinegar for sheep and goats and 2–8 L for cattle. Cold water (0–4°C) should also be given to dilute the rumen contents and reduce ammonia production in the rumen. Up to 40L cold water for cattle. Repeated treatment may be required if clinical signs reappear.

Supportive therapy includes IV fluid therapy (isotonic saline solution) to correct dehydration and IV administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium solutions to relieve tetanic seizures. Convulsions may also be controlled with sodium pentobarbital or other injectable anesthetic agents.


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