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  Amount of Forage A Cow Will Eat per Day
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:32 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Just like in poultry, knowing how much a cow will consume per day is important in planning feeding. Cows will eat more if the forage quality is high and vice versa. Below is the info:
1. Low Quality Forage: Examples include mature grass, crop residues etc. Intake will be about 1.5% of the cow's body weight.

2. Average-to-Good Quality Forage: Includes leafy grass with few seed heads. Intake is about 2.5% of body weight.

3. High Quality Forage: include young, leafy grass, legumes. Intake will be about 3% of body weight.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:31 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:29 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:27 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Recommended amount of urea to give to milking cow
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:09 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Urea is a very cheap form of protein for ruminants. It is a form of protein called non-protein nitrogen (NPN) because it is not like the proteins found in meat, soybeans meal, fish meal etc. But mricrobes in ruminants' belly can use it as protein and multiply. When they die, the animal will use them as a source of protein.

Urea can do wonders in terms of promoting growth or milk yield. But too much can lead to disastrous effect. For milking cows, give a maximum of 220g per cow per day. But 110 to 150g per cow per day is more common. Mix it in the concentrate feed to achieve 1 to 2% urea in the total grain ration or 2.8 to 5.6% crude protein from NPN in total grain ration.

Urea contains about 262 to 287% crude protein.

Don't feed urea together with raw soybeans hull because an enzyme in the hull will break down urea to ammonia, causing poor palatability (poor feed intake). Also, don't feed it to calves less than 3 months old.

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  Aspilia africana to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:05 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Aspilia africana is a weed that can be found in nigeria and other countries. It is good for rabbits. It can increase their milk production and growth. Fresh one will give higher milk yield and growth than wilted one.

In this experiment, the diet used was:
Centrosema pubescens: 200g
Sweet potato leaves: 200g
Panicum maxima: 100g
Aspilia africana: 500g

The rabbits were also fed a concentrate feed that contains:
Maize offal: 45%
Palm kernel cake: 30%
Soybean meal: 20%
Blood meal: 2%
Bone meal: 2%
Vitamins-minerals premix: 0.25%
Salt: 0.25%

250g of the premix contains vit A: 1500IU, vit D: 300IU, Vit E: 3 IU, vit k: 0.25g, Thiamine: 0.2mg, Riboflavin: 0.6mg, Pantothenic acid: 1mg, Pyridoxine: 0.4999mg, Niacin:4mg, vit B2: 0.002mg, Folic acid: 0.1mg, Biotin: 0.008mg, Choline: 0.05g, Antioxidant: 0.012g, Manganese: 0.0096g, Zinc: 0.006g, Copper: 0.0006g, Iodine: 0.00014g, Selenium: 0.024mg, Cobalt: 0.004mg

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  Sweet Potato Tubers to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:04 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Sweet potato tubers can replace 100% maize without adverse effect on performance and health.

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  Cassava Leaves to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:01 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Nutritionally, cassava leaves is as good as alfalfal and Aspilia africana. Fresh cassava foliage (leaves and stems) and cassava whole plant meal (dry roots, leaves and stems that has been grinded) can be included at up to 45% in weaned rabbit diet to replace maize and this had no adverse effect on performance or apparent nutrient digestibility.

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  Palm Kernel Cake to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:00 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

PKC has a low starch to fiber ratio and this is good for rabbits as it may decrease mortality. It can be included at 20-30% in well-formulated rabbit feeds. Higher levels may lower performance. It can replace up to 50% of the protein supplied by soybean meal and 37.5% of that supplied by groundnut cake.

PKC is low in lysine and sulfur amino acides, supplying only58% and 80% respectively of the recommended levels.

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  Carrot Tops are Good for Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:56 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Carrot tops can replace 75% of soybean meal in growing rabbits diets, resulting in increase nutrient digestibility, live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Higher inclusion than 75% is bad.

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  Rabbit Feed that Gave 15g/day Growth
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:50 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

This growth rate is quite poor as it will take a rabbit about 66 days to gain 1kg in weight. But I think it is still manageable as a kind of maintanance diet or so. You should also consider the value of rabbits manure and urine. The urine is a good foliar spray to crops.

Here is the fmla:
Millet mash residure: 78%
Moringa leaf meal: 20%
Di calcium phosphate: 1%
Salt: 0.5%
Vitamin-mineral premix: 0.5%

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  How to Feed Forages to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:29 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Forages, that is, legumes and grasses, can supply a major part of crude protein and fiber for rabbits. But they can't supply a major part of energy. So supplementing forages with energy sources like wheat offal and rice bran is good. High-starch feedstuffs like maize, roots, fruits should be fed in small quantities as too much is unhealthy for rabbits.

Forages can also be supplemented by protein sources like soybeans meal, groundnut cake, palm kernel cake etc.

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  Rabbits, Cassava Peels and Cyanide
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:26 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Cassava contains a toxin called cyanide. This toxin, when consumed up to a certain quantity can cause bad health effect on rabbits or even death. You can reduce the toxic effect by adding 5% palm oil to cassava peel.

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  Leucaena: A toxic but good feed for rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:19 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Leucaena is a legume tree that is highly nutricious for rabbits. But it contains a toxin called mimosine. Symptoms of this toxin in rabbits include poor growth, hair loss, dermatitis etc. The toxin is at its highest level in young leaves (4.5% content). By 10 weeks old, it has reduced to 2% while crude protein decrease from 31 to 14%. There is no change in fiber, tanin or phenolic concentration. The best way to feed this highly nutricious leaves without endangering rabbits' health is by mixing it with other forages so that they won't consume too much and get affected.

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  Guinea Grass vs Elephant Grass for Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:15 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

If you're faced between these 2 grasses, choose elephant grass! Guinea grass is very poorly digested by rabbits. Energy digestibility is 10.7% for guinea grass and 45.2% for elephant grass. Protein digestibility is 13% for guinea and 64.7% for elephant grass. So it is wort searching for and using elephant grass. Guinea grass seem to be more common but you can still find and plant elephant grass. I did just that for my goat and the yield was very good. I will write about planting elephant grass when I have the chance.

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  Feed Formula for Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:10 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

I got this from one of my researches online and I'll like to share it with you. This formulae was said to give good carcass but they did not state the daily growth rate. Anyway, it is still wort trying out. One thing with rabbit diet is that if it contains too much starch, mortality will be high. So this formula is a good guide for rabbit farmers.

And here is it:
Maize: 21.97%
Maize offal:18.31%
Wheat offal: 10.26%
Sweet potato vine: 4.4%
Rice bran: 18.31%
Groundnut cake: 23.03%
Bone meal: 2%
Palm oil: 1%
Salt: 0.25%
Vitamins-minerals premix: 0.25%
Methionine: 0.1%
Lysine: 0.15%

This diet has crude protein: 18.09%; crude fiber: 23.07 and metabolic energy: 2566kcal/kg.

The premix used was Roche VM 502 with the following content per kg: Vitamin A: 12000IU, Vit D3: 12000 IU, Vit E: 3.6 IU, vit k: 1.8mg, Vit B2: 3.6mg, Nicotinate: 18mg, Calcium D-pentothenate: 9.6mg, Biotin: 0.36mg, Vit B12: 0.12mg, Choline chloride: 120mg, Chlotetracycline: 4.8mg, Manganese: 24mg, Iron: 48mg, Zinc: 96mg, Copper: 60mg, Iodine: 1.8mg, Cobalt: 48mg.

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  Highly Digestible Legumes for Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:07 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Legumes can be a good source of cheap protein for rabbits. However, some legumes are rich in protein but most of that protein won't be available to rabbits. Research have found the following legumes to be very digestible for rabbits: Albizia falcata, Leucaena, and Sesbania. Don't let the names intimidate you. By googling pictures of them, you may recognise some.

Wilt them before feeding to get rid of poisons they contain.The poisons can cause poor growth, hair loss, dermatitis etc. Also, don't feed too much of one legume, combining them is better.

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  Bakers' Yeast is Good for Dairy Cows
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:05 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Giving bakers' yeast to cows at 20g per cow per day improves digestion and fermentation, feed intake, stimulates the immune system, help them cope with heat stress and feed changes.

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  How to Feed Dairy Cows for Higher Feed Consumption
Posted by: Henlus - 07-31-2019, 10:53 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Cows produce more milk during early lactation and the more milk they produce at this time, the more they will produce during late lactation. To get more milk, wise dairy farmers use a strategy called Targeted Feeding. This involves feeding more concentrate during early lactation and less or no concentrate during late lactation.

In one experiment, cows produced an average if 15L milk per day when fed napier grass ad-lib plus 8kg dairy meal per day for the first 3 months. During the next 7 months of lactation, no dairy meal was fed and the cows produced 5.5L/day. Total dairy meal fed was 720kg per cow and total milk produced was 2505L.

But when fed 2.4kg dairy meal per day for 10 months, they yield an average of 8L milk per day during first 3 months and 6L/day during next 7 months. Total dairy meal fed was 720kg per cow and total milk produced was 1980L.

Between the 2, there was a big difference of 525L of milk! Yet the same quantity of dairy meal was fed.

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  Important Info on Goat/Sheep Housing
Posted by: Henlus - 07-31-2019, 10:43 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Elevated shelter seem to be the best as the goats will not come into much contact with their feces and this reduce the chance of disease and parasite transmission. Elevated shelter floor should be 60 to 90cm above ground. Roof should be about 150 to 200cm above the sheltered floor with a 28 degree slope. The floor should consist of treated floor board or bamboo spaced a finger width apart (~1.5cm for adult sheep and narrower for goats; 1.3cm for young lambs). You can make the slatted floor removable. Gap between the wall and roof should be 50-80 cm.

Space Requirement
1. Permanent Housing (zero grazing): 1.2 square meter per breeding females. 2 square meter per breeding males. 0.8 square meter per young animal. Also add an exercise yard for them.

2. Night Housing and Day Grazing: 0.8 square meter per breeding females. 1.5 square meter per breeding males. 0.5 square meter per young animal.

Feeding Space: at the feeder, leave 30-40cm per animal.

More coming later.

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